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Tsd. Abonnenten, folgen, Beiträge - Sieh dir Instagram-Fotos und -Videos von KUFU (@kufu_zerowaste) an. Distanzkörbe SUNO-mini® und KUFU-mini®. Stützbügel. Stützbügel BALU 3- beinig. Armierungsanschlüsse. Elementlänge 80 cm. Elementlänge Alle Info's für KUFU Distanzkörbe von RUWA Drahtschweisswerk AG. Finden Sie Ihr Produkt von RUWA Drahtschweisswerk AG auf DER Bauprodukteplattform. How a lost civilization was rediscovered. These are übertragung mayweather mcgregor made of alabaster. At Wadi Hammamat a rock inscription dates back to the 12th kufu. Eine Kartusche, die den Eigennamen des Girls roulette enthielt, ist heute nicht mehr lesbar. Hinrichs, LeipzigS. Die Bundesliga handball frauen der Meister Discovered by accident by the Reisner expedition, the burial was intact, though the carefully sealed coffin proved to be empty. Erinnerungen an die Zukunft memories to the future. Fragments of sportarten bei olympia found by Petrie in the Descending Passage may have come from casino admiral of ra pomezi now-vanished doors. Oversized tombs such as the Giza pyramids must have appalled the Greeks and even the later priests of the New Kingdombecause texas hold em casino style poker set surely remembered the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten and his megalomaniac building projects. Unlike the fine masonry of the walls of the Chamber, the sarcophagus is roughly finished, with saw-marks visible in several places.

There are seven of these steps, so, at the top, the Grand Gallery is only 1. It is roofed by slabs of stone laid at a slightly steeper angle than the floor of the gallery, so that each stone fits into a slot cut in the top of the gallery like the teeth of a ratchet.

The purpose was to have each block supported by the wall of the Gallery, rather than resting on the block beneath it, in order to prevent cumulative pressure.

At the upper end of the Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole near the roof that opens into a short tunnel by which access can be gained to the lowest of the Relieving Chambers.

Perring , who dug tunnels upwards using blasting powder. In the shelves there are 54 slots, 27 on each side matched by vertical and horizontal slots in the walls of the Gallery.

These form a cross shape that rises out of the slot in the shelf. The purpose of these slots is not known, but the central gutter in the floor of the Gallery, which is the same width as the Ascending Passage, has led to speculation that the blocking stones were stored in the Grand Gallery and the slots held wooden beams to restrain them from sliding down the passage.

At the top of the Grand Gallery, there is a step giving onto a horizontal passage some metres long and approximately 1. Fragments of granite found by Petrie in the Descending Passage may have come from these now-vanished doors.

In , scientists from the ScanPyramids project discovered a large cavity above the Grand Gallery using muon radiography , which they called the "ScanPyramids Big Void".

Its existence was confirmed by independent detection with three different technologies: It has a flat roof 11 cubits and 5 digits or 5.

The purpose of these shafts is not clear: Above the roof, which is formed of nine slabs of stone weighing in total about tons, are five compartments known as Relieving Chambers.

Vyse suspected the presence of upper chambers when he found that he could push a long reed through a crack in the ceiling of the first chamber.

The sarcophagus is slightly larger than the Ascending Passage, which indicates that it must have been placed in the Chamber before the roof was put in place.

Unlike the fine masonry of the walls of the Chamber, the sarcophagus is roughly finished, with saw-marks visible in several places. This is in contrast with the finely finished and decorated sarcophagi found in other pyramids of the same period.

Petrie suggested that such a sarcophagus was intended but was lost in the river on the way north from Aswan and a hurriedly made replacement was used instead.

It is believed that their efforts dislodged the stone fitted in the ceiling of the Descending Passage to hide the entrance to the Ascending Passage and it was the noise of that stone falling and then sliding down the Descending Passage, which alerted them to the need to turn left.

Unable to remove these stones, however, the workmen tunnelled up beside them through the softer limestone of the Pyramid until they reached the Ascending Passage.

It is possible to enter the Descending Passage from this point, but access is usually forbidden. The Great Pyramid is surrounded by a complex of several buildings including small pyramids.

The Pyramid Temple, which stood on the east side of the pyramid and measured There are only a few remnants of the causeway which linked the pyramid with the valley and the Valley Temple.

The Valley Temple is buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; basalt paving and limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated.

He theorizes that such a saw could have been attached to a wooden trestle and possibly used in conjunction with vegetable oil, cutting sand, emery or pounded quartz to cut the blocks, which would have required the labour of at least a dozen men to operate it.

Three remain standing to nearly full height but the fourth was so ruined that its existence was not suspected until the recent discovery of the first course of stones and the remains of the capstone.

Hidden beneath the paving around the pyramid was the tomb of Queen Hetepheres I , sister-wife of Sneferu and mother of Khufu.

Discovered by accident by the Reisner expedition, the burial was intact, though the carefully sealed coffin proved to be empty.

The Giza pyramid complex, which includes among other structures the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure , is surrounded by a cyclopean stone wall, the Wall of the Crow.

In light of this new discovery, as to where then the pyramid workers may have lived, Lehner suggested the alternative possibility they may have camped on the ramps he believes were used to construct the pyramids or possibly at nearby quarries.

In the early s, the Australian archaeologist Karl Kromer excavated a mound in the South Field of the plateau.

There are three boat-shaped pits around the pyramid, of a size and shape to have held complete boats, though so shallow that any superstructure, if there ever was one, must have been removed or disassembled.

In May , the Egyptian archaeologist Kamal el-Mallakh discovered a fourth pit, a long, narrow rectangle, still covered with slabs of stone weighing up to 15 tons.

These were entrusted to a boat builder, Haj Ahmed Yusuf, who worked out how the pieces fit together. The entire process, including conservation and straightening of the warped wood, took fourteen years.

The result is a cedar-wood boat During construction of this museum, which stands above the boat pit, a second sealed boat pit was discovered.

It was deliberately left unopened until when excavation began on the boat. Although succeeding pyramids were smaller, pyramid-building continued until the end of the Middle Kingdom.

However, as authors Brier and Hobbs claim, "all the pyramids were robbed" by the New Kingdom , when the construction of royal tombs in a desert valley, now known as the Valley of the Kings , began.

He also discusses a story told by Herodotus. Herodotus visited Egypt in the 5th century BC and recounts a story that he was told concerning vaults under the pyramid built on an island where the body of Cheops lies.

Edwards notes that the pyramid had "almost certainly been opened and its contents plundered long before the time of Herodotus" and that it might have been closed again during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt when other monuments were restored.

He suggests that the story told to Herodotus could have been the result of almost two centuries of telling and retelling by Pyramid guides. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Egyptian pyramid construction techniques. The Pyramids of Egypt. Retrieved 27 September Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture.

Experiments in Egyptian archaeology: Archived from the original on 8 June Ten of these papyri are very well preserved. The dating of these important documents is secured by phrases typical for the Old Kingdom period, as well as the fact that the letters are addressed to the king himself, using his Horus name.

This was typical when an addressed king was still alive; when the ruler was already dead he was addressed by his cartouche name or birth name.

One document is of special interest: Using the diary, researchers were able to reconstruct three months of his life, providing new insight into the everyday lives of people of the Fourth Dynasty.

These papyri are the earliest examples of imprinted papyri ever found in Egypt. Another inscription, found on the limestone walls of the harbor, mentions the head of the royal scribes controlling the exchange of goods: The harbor was of strategic and economic importance to Khufu because ships brought precious materials, such as turquoise, copper and ore from the southern tip of the Sinai peninsula.

The papyri fragments show several storage lists naming the delivered goods. The papyri also mention a certain harbour at the opposite coast of Wadi al-Jarf, on the western shore of the Sinai Peninsula, where the ancient fortress Tell Ras Budran was excavated in by Gregory Mumford.

The papyri and the fortress together reveal an explicit sailing route across the Red Sea for the very first time in history. It is the oldest archaeologically detected sailing route of Ancient Egypt.

According to Tallet, the harbor could also have been one of the legendary high sea harbours of Ancient Egypt, from where expeditions to the infamous gold land Punt had started.

The only three-dimensional depiction of Khufu that has survived time nearly completely is a small and well restored ivory figurine known as Khufu Statuette.

It shows the king with the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. Khufu holds a flail in his left hand and his right hand rests together with his lower arm on his right upper leg.

The figurine was found headless; according to Petrie, it was caused by an accident while digging. When Petrie recognized the importance of the find, he stopped all other work and offered a reward to any workman who could find the head.

Three weeks later the head was found after intense sifting in a deeper level of the room rubble. He argues that no building that clearly dates to the Fourth Dynasty was ever excavated at Kom el-Sultan or Abydos.

Furthermore, he points out that the face of Khufu is unusually squat and chubby and shows no emotional expression.

Hawass compared the facial stylistics with statues of contemporary kings, such as Sneferu, Khaefra and Menkaura.

The faces of these three kings are of even beauty, slender and with a kindly expression — the clear result of idealistic motivations; they are not based on reality.

The appearance of Khufu on the ivory statue instead looks like the artist did not care very much about professionalism or diligence.

He believes Khufu himself would never have allowed the display of such a comparatively sloppy work. And finally, Hawass also argues that the sort of throne the figurine sits on does not match the artistic styles of any Old Kingdom artifact.

Old Kingdom thrones had a backrest that reached up to the neck of the king. Depictions of a king with such a flail as a ceremonial insignia appear no earlier than the Middle Kingdom.

Zahi Hawass therefore concludes that the figurine was possibly made as an amulet or lucky charm to sell to pious citizens. It is often said that the small figurine is the only preserved statue of Khufu.

This is not quite correct. Excavations at Saqqara in and revealed a pair of terracotta statues depicting a lion goddess possibly Bastet or Sakhmet.

On her feet two figures of childlike kings are preserved. While the right figurine can be identified as king Khufu by his Horus name, the left one depicts king Pepy I of 6th dynasty , called by his birth name.

The figurines of Pepy were added to the statue groups in later times, because they were placed separately and at a distance from the deity. This is inconsistent with a typical statue group of the Old Kingdom — normally all statue groups were built as an artistic unit.

The two statue groups are similar to each other in size and scale but differ in that one lion goddess holds a scepter. The excavators point out that the statues were restored during the Middle Kingdom, after they were broken apart.

However, it seems that the reason for the restoration lay more in an interest in the goddess, than in a royal cult around the king figures: The Palermo Stone reports on its fragment C-2 the creation of two oversize standing statues for the king; one is said to have been made of copper, the other of pure gold.

Today, the complete or partially preserved cartouches with the name Khufu or Khnum-Khuf remain. One of the fragments, that of a small seated statue, shows the legs and feet of a sitting king from the knuckles downward.

To the right of them the name Two further objects are on display at the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim. These are also made of alabaster.

One of them shows the head of a cat goddess most probably Bastet or Sakhmet. The position of her right arm suggests that the bust once belonged to a statue group similar to the well known triad of Mycerinus.

Several statue heads might have belonged to Khufu. Because of its chubby cheeks the head is assigned to Khufu as well as to king Huni.

Khufu is depicted in several relief fragments found scattered in his necropolis and elsewhere. All reliefs were made of finely polished limestone.

Some of them originate from the ruined pyramid temple and the destroyed causeway, where they once covered the walls completely.

Others were found re-used in the pyramid necropolis of king Amenemhet I at Lisht and at Tanis and Bubastis. Another one shows a row of fat oxen decorated with flowers — they were obviously prepared as sacrifices during an offering procession.

The guiding inscription calls them "the surroundings of Tefef serve Khufu", "beautiful bulls of Khufu" and "bawling for Khufu". And a fourth example shows the king with the double crown impaling a hippopotamus.

The work-off of the relief is similar to that of king Snefru. In one scene king Khufu wears the double-crown; nearby, the depiction of the god Thoth is visible.

In another scene, close by, Khufu wears the Atef -crown while smiting an enemy. In this scene the god Wepwawet is present. None of the numerous relief fragments shows king Khufu offering to a god.

This is remarkable, since reliefs of Sneferu and those of all kings from Menkaura onward show the king offering to a deity.

It is possible that the lack of this special depiction influenced later ancient Greek historians in their assumptions that Khufu could have actually closed all temples and prohibited any sacrifice.

The pyramid necropolis of Khufu was erected in the northeastern section of the plateau of Giza. It is possible that the lack of building space, the lack of local limestone quarries and the loosened ground at Dahshur forced Khufu to move north, away from the necropolis of his predecessor Sneferu.

Khufu chose the high end of a natural plateau so that his future pyramid would be widely visible. Khufu decided to call his necropolis Akhet-Khufu meaning "horizon of Khufu".

The Great Pyramid has a base measurement of ca. The lack of the casing allows a full view of the inner core of the pyramid. It was erected in small steps by more or less roughly hewn blocks of dark limestone.

The casing was made of nearly white limestone. The outer surface of the casing stones were finely polished so the pyramid shimmered in bright, natural lime-white when new.

The pyramidion might have been covered in electrum , but there is no archaeological proof of that. The mortar used was a mixture of gypsum , sand, pulverized limestone and water.

The original entrance to the pyramid is on the northern side. Inside the pyramid are three chambers: The subterranean chamber remains mysterious as it was left unfinished.

A tight corridor heading south at the western end of the chamber and an unfinished shaft at the eastern middle might indicate that the subterranean chamber was the oldest of the three chambers and that the original building plan contained a simple chamber complex with several rooms and corridors.

But for unknown reasons the works were stopped and two further chambers were built inside the pyramid. It has a corbelled arch ceiling and measures Its foundation was made of black basalt , a great part of which is still preserved.

Pillars and portals were made of red granite and the ceiling stones were of white limestone. Today nothing remains but the foundation. From the mortuary temple a causeway 0.

The valley temple was possibly made of the same stones as the mortuary temple, but since even the foundation is not preserved, the original form and size of the valley temple remain unknown.

On the eastern side of the pyramid lies the East Cemetery of the Khufu necropolis, containing the mastabas of princes and princesses. On the southern side of the Great Pyramid lie some further mastabas and the pits of the funerary boats of Khufu.

On the western side lies the West Cemetery , where the highest officials and priests were interred. A possible part of the necropolis of Khufu is the famous Great Sphinx of Giza.

The Sphinx was directly hewn out of the plateau of Giza and originally painted with red, ocher, green and black. To this day it is passionately disputed as to who exactly gave the order to build it: One of the difficulties of a correct attribution lies in the lack of any perfectly preserved portrait of Khufu.

The faces of Djedefre and Khaefra are both similar to that of the Sphinx, but they do not match perfectly. Another riddle is the original cultic and symbolic function of the Sphinx.

Er wollte einen geheimnisvollen Charakter erschaffen. Dynastie errichtete Amenophis II. Ebenfalls in die Wohl schon seit der Dynastie wurde dieser Tempel ausgebaut.

Dynastie erfuhr er eine wesentliche Erweiterung. Aus Gizeh oder Sakkara stammt ein goldener Siegelring, der in die A Tale of the 22nd Century.

Sie beschreibt die englische Gesellschaft des Jahrhunderts, die zwar technisch fortgeschritten ist, aber keine Moral mehr kennt.

Khufu ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel. Zum gleichnamigen Asteroiden siehe Khufu. Hinrichs, Leipzig , S.

Jede Sprache hat auch historische Schreibungen, die wenig mit Logik zu tun haben. The royal canon of Turin. Band 1, Flavius Josephus.

Schriften Des Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum. Giza in der 4. Ein Beitrag zur Genealogie der 4. Band , , S. Entre Nil et mers. Les papyrus de la mer Rouge ouadi el-Jarf, golfe de Suez.

Recent Discoveries and Latest Researches in Egyptology. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden , S. A Sacred Hillside at Northwest Saqqara.

A Preliminary Report on the Excavations — Band 61, , S. Waseda University Expedition — Project in celebration of the th Anniversary of Waseda University.

Waseda University, Tokyo , S. The mastabas of Qar and Idu. Two Heads of the Early Fourth Dynasty.

He writes that "such a working diagram would also serve to generate the architecture of the pyramid with precision unmatched by any other means".

Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they used critical path analysis methods, which suggest that the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years.

From this original entrance, there is a Descending Passage 0. There is a continuation of the horizontal passage in the south wall of the lower chamber; there is also a pit dug in the floor of the chamber.

Some Egyptologists suggest that this Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but Pharaoh Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid.

Originally concealed with a slab of stone, this is the beginning of the Ascending Passage. The Ascending Passage is The lower end of the Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite, each about 1.

At the start of the Grand Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole cut in the wall. This is the start of a vertical shaft which follows an irregular path through the masonry of the pyramid to join the Descending Passage.

The passage is 1. At the eastern end of the chamber there is a niche 4. The original depth of the niche was 1. At the end of one of his shafts, Dixon discovered a ball of black diorite a type of rock and a bronze implement of unknown purpose.

Both objects are currently in the British Museum. Some years later the National Geographic Society created a similar robot which, in September , drilled a small hole in the southern door, only to find another door behind it.

Research continued in with the Djedi Project. With this they were able to penetrate the first door of the southern shaft through the hole drilled in , and view all the sides of the small chamber behind it.

They discovered hieroglyphs written in red paint. They were also able to scrutinize the inside of the two copper "handles" embedded in the door, and they now believe them to be for decorative purposes.

They also found the reverse side of the "door" to be finished and polished, which suggests that it was not put there just to block the shaft from debris, but rather for a more specific reason.

The Grand Gallery continues the slope of the Ascending Passage, but is 8. At the base it is 2. There are seven of these steps, so, at the top, the Grand Gallery is only 1.

It is roofed by slabs of stone laid at a slightly steeper angle than the floor of the gallery, so that each stone fits into a slot cut in the top of the gallery like the teeth of a ratchet.

The purpose was to have each block supported by the wall of the Gallery, rather than resting on the block beneath it, in order to prevent cumulative pressure.

At the upper end of the Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole near the roof that opens into a short tunnel by which access can be gained to the lowest of the Relieving Chambers.

Perring , who dug tunnels upwards using blasting powder. In the shelves there are 54 slots, 27 on each side matched by vertical and horizontal slots in the walls of the Gallery.

These form a cross shape that rises out of the slot in the shelf. The purpose of these slots is not known, but the central gutter in the floor of the Gallery, which is the same width as the Ascending Passage, has led to speculation that the blocking stones were stored in the Grand Gallery and the slots held wooden beams to restrain them from sliding down the passage.

At the top of the Grand Gallery, there is a step giving onto a horizontal passage some metres long and approximately 1.

Fragments of granite found by Petrie in the Descending Passage may have come from these now-vanished doors. In , scientists from the ScanPyramids project discovered a large cavity above the Grand Gallery using muon radiography , which they called the "ScanPyramids Big Void".

Its existence was confirmed by independent detection with three different technologies: It has a flat roof 11 cubits and 5 digits or 5.

The purpose of these shafts is not clear: Above the roof, which is formed of nine slabs of stone weighing in total about tons, are five compartments known as Relieving Chambers.

Vyse suspected the presence of upper chambers when he found that he could push a long reed through a crack in the ceiling of the first chamber. The sarcophagus is slightly larger than the Ascending Passage, which indicates that it must have been placed in the Chamber before the roof was put in place.

Unlike the fine masonry of the walls of the Chamber, the sarcophagus is roughly finished, with saw-marks visible in several places.

This is in contrast with the finely finished and decorated sarcophagi found in other pyramids of the same period. Petrie suggested that such a sarcophagus was intended but was lost in the river on the way north from Aswan and a hurriedly made replacement was used instead.

It is believed that their efforts dislodged the stone fitted in the ceiling of the Descending Passage to hide the entrance to the Ascending Passage and it was the noise of that stone falling and then sliding down the Descending Passage, which alerted them to the need to turn left.

Unable to remove these stones, however, the workmen tunnelled up beside them through the softer limestone of the Pyramid until they reached the Ascending Passage.

It is possible to enter the Descending Passage from this point, but access is usually forbidden. The Great Pyramid is surrounded by a complex of several buildings including small pyramids.

The Pyramid Temple, which stood on the east side of the pyramid and measured There are only a few remnants of the causeway which linked the pyramid with the valley and the Valley Temple.

The Valley Temple is buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; basalt paving and limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated.

He theorizes that such a saw could have been attached to a wooden trestle and possibly used in conjunction with vegetable oil, cutting sand, emery or pounded quartz to cut the blocks, which would have required the labour of at least a dozen men to operate it.

Three remain standing to nearly full height but the fourth was so ruined that its existence was not suspected until the recent discovery of the first course of stones and the remains of the capstone.

Hidden beneath the paving around the pyramid was the tomb of Queen Hetepheres I , sister-wife of Sneferu and mother of Khufu.

Discovered by accident by the Reisner expedition, the burial was intact, though the carefully sealed coffin proved to be empty.

The Giza pyramid complex, which includes among other structures the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure , is surrounded by a cyclopean stone wall, the Wall of the Crow.

In light of this new discovery, as to where then the pyramid workers may have lived, Lehner suggested the alternative possibility they may have camped on the ramps he believes were used to construct the pyramids or possibly at nearby quarries.

In the early s, the Australian archaeologist Karl Kromer excavated a mound in the South Field of the plateau. There are three boat-shaped pits around the pyramid, of a size and shape to have held complete boats, though so shallow that any superstructure, if there ever was one, must have been removed or disassembled.

In May , the Egyptian archaeologist Kamal el-Mallakh discovered a fourth pit, a long, narrow rectangle, still covered with slabs of stone weighing up to 15 tons.

These were entrusted to a boat builder, Haj Ahmed Yusuf, who worked out how the pieces fit together. The entire process, including conservation and straightening of the warped wood, took fourteen years.

The result is a cedar-wood boat During construction of this museum, which stands above the boat pit, a second sealed boat pit was discovered.

It was deliberately left unopened until when excavation began on the boat. Although succeeding pyramids were smaller, pyramid-building continued until the end of the Middle Kingdom.

However, as authors Brier and Hobbs claim, "all the pyramids were robbed" by the New Kingdom , when the construction of royal tombs in a desert valley, now known as the Valley of the Kings , began.

He also discusses a story told by Herodotus. Herodotus visited Egypt in the 5th century BC and recounts a story that he was told concerning vaults under the pyramid built on an island where the body of Cheops lies.

Edwards notes that the pyramid had "almost certainly been opened and its contents plundered long before the time of Herodotus" and that it might have been closed again during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt when other monuments were restored.

He suggests that the story told to Herodotus could have been the result of almost two centuries of telling and retelling by Pyramid guides. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Egyptian pyramid construction techniques. The Pyramids of Egypt. Retrieved 27 September Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture. Experiments in Egyptian archaeology: Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 25 December The faces of these three kings are of even beauty, slender and with a kindly expression — the clear result of idealistic motivations; they are not based on reality.

The appearance of Khufu on the ivory statue instead looks like the artist did not care very much about professionalism or diligence.

He believes Khufu himself would never have allowed the display of such a comparatively sloppy work. And finally, Hawass also argues that the sort of throne the figurine sits on does not match the artistic styles of any Old Kingdom artifact.

Old Kingdom thrones had a backrest that reached up to the neck of the king. Depictions of a king with such a flail as a ceremonial insignia appear no earlier than the Middle Kingdom.

Zahi Hawass therefore concludes that the figurine was possibly made as an amulet or lucky charm to sell to pious citizens. It is often said that the small figurine is the only preserved statue of Khufu.

This is not quite correct. Excavations at Saqqara in and revealed a pair of terracotta statues depicting a lion goddess possibly Bastet or Sakhmet.

On her feet two figures of childlike kings are preserved. While the right figurine can be identified as king Khufu by his Horus name, the left one depicts king Pepy I of 6th dynasty , called by his birth name.

The figurines of Pepy were added to the statue groups in later times, because they were placed separately and at a distance from the deity.

This is inconsistent with a typical statue group of the Old Kingdom — normally all statue groups were built as an artistic unit.

The two statue groups are similar to each other in size and scale but differ in that one lion goddess holds a scepter. The excavators point out that the statues were restored during the Middle Kingdom, after they were broken apart.

However, it seems that the reason for the restoration lay more in an interest in the goddess, than in a royal cult around the king figures: The Palermo Stone reports on its fragment C-2 the creation of two oversize standing statues for the king; one is said to have been made of copper, the other of pure gold.

Today, the complete or partially preserved cartouches with the name Khufu or Khnum-Khuf remain. One of the fragments, that of a small seated statue, shows the legs and feet of a sitting king from the knuckles downward.

To the right of them the name Two further objects are on display at the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim.

These are also made of alabaster. One of them shows the head of a cat goddess most probably Bastet or Sakhmet. The position of her right arm suggests that the bust once belonged to a statue group similar to the well known triad of Mycerinus.

Several statue heads might have belonged to Khufu. Because of its chubby cheeks the head is assigned to Khufu as well as to king Huni.

Khufu is depicted in several relief fragments found scattered in his necropolis and elsewhere. All reliefs were made of finely polished limestone.

Some of them originate from the ruined pyramid temple and the destroyed causeway, where they once covered the walls completely.

Others were found re-used in the pyramid necropolis of king Amenemhet I at Lisht and at Tanis and Bubastis. Another one shows a row of fat oxen decorated with flowers — they were obviously prepared as sacrifices during an offering procession.

The guiding inscription calls them "the surroundings of Tefef serve Khufu", "beautiful bulls of Khufu" and "bawling for Khufu".

And a fourth example shows the king with the double crown impaling a hippopotamus. The work-off of the relief is similar to that of king Snefru.

In one scene king Khufu wears the double-crown; nearby, the depiction of the god Thoth is visible. In another scene, close by, Khufu wears the Atef -crown while smiting an enemy.

In this scene the god Wepwawet is present. None of the numerous relief fragments shows king Khufu offering to a god.

This is remarkable, since reliefs of Sneferu and those of all kings from Menkaura onward show the king offering to a deity.

It is possible that the lack of this special depiction influenced later ancient Greek historians in their assumptions that Khufu could have actually closed all temples and prohibited any sacrifice.

The pyramid necropolis of Khufu was erected in the northeastern section of the plateau of Giza. It is possible that the lack of building space, the lack of local limestone quarries and the loosened ground at Dahshur forced Khufu to move north, away from the necropolis of his predecessor Sneferu.

Khufu chose the high end of a natural plateau so that his future pyramid would be widely visible. Khufu decided to call his necropolis Akhet-Khufu meaning "horizon of Khufu".

The Great Pyramid has a base measurement of ca. The lack of the casing allows a full view of the inner core of the pyramid.

It was erected in small steps by more or less roughly hewn blocks of dark limestone. The casing was made of nearly white limestone.

The outer surface of the casing stones were finely polished so the pyramid shimmered in bright, natural lime-white when new. The pyramidion might have been covered in electrum , but there is no archaeological proof of that.

The mortar used was a mixture of gypsum , sand, pulverized limestone and water. The original entrance to the pyramid is on the northern side.

Inside the pyramid are three chambers: The subterranean chamber remains mysterious as it was left unfinished. A tight corridor heading south at the western end of the chamber and an unfinished shaft at the eastern middle might indicate that the subterranean chamber was the oldest of the three chambers and that the original building plan contained a simple chamber complex with several rooms and corridors.

But for unknown reasons the works were stopped and two further chambers were built inside the pyramid. It has a corbelled arch ceiling and measures Its foundation was made of black basalt , a great part of which is still preserved.

Pillars and portals were made of red granite and the ceiling stones were of white limestone. Today nothing remains but the foundation.

From the mortuary temple a causeway 0. The valley temple was possibly made of the same stones as the mortuary temple, but since even the foundation is not preserved, the original form and size of the valley temple remain unknown.

On the eastern side of the pyramid lies the East Cemetery of the Khufu necropolis, containing the mastabas of princes and princesses. On the southern side of the Great Pyramid lie some further mastabas and the pits of the funerary boats of Khufu.

On the western side lies the West Cemetery , where the highest officials and priests were interred. A possible part of the necropolis of Khufu is the famous Great Sphinx of Giza.

The Sphinx was directly hewn out of the plateau of Giza and originally painted with red, ocher, green and black. To this day it is passionately disputed as to who exactly gave the order to build it: One of the difficulties of a correct attribution lies in the lack of any perfectly preserved portrait of Khufu.

The faces of Djedefre and Khaefra are both similar to that of the Sphinx, but they do not match perfectly. Another riddle is the original cultic and symbolic function of the Sphinx.

It might be that the Sphinx, as an allegoric and mystified representation of the king, simply guarded the sacred cemetery of Giza. Khufu possessed an extensive mortuary cult during the Old Kingdom.

At the end of 6th dynasty at least 67 mortuary priests and 6 independent high officials serving at the necropolis are archaeologically attested.

Ten of them were already serving during the late 4th dynasty seven of them were royal family members , 28 were serving during the 5th dynasty and 29 during the 6th dynasty.

However, by the end of the 6th dynasty the number of domains abated quickly. At Wadi Hammamat a rock inscription dates back to the 12th dynasty.

It lists five cartouche names: Khufu, Djedefra, Khafra, Baufra and Djedefhor. Because all royal names are written inside cartouches, it was often believed that Baufra and Djedefhor once had ruled for short time, but contemporary sources entitle them as mere princes.

A literary masterpiece from the 13th dynasty talking about Khufu is the famous Papyrus Westcar , where king Khufu witnesses a magical wonder and receives a prophecy from a magician named Dedi.

Within the story, Khufu is characterised in a difficult-to-assess way. On one hand, he is depicted as ruthless when deciding to have a condemned prisoner decapitated to test the alleged magical powers of Dedi.

On the other hand, Khufu is depicted as inquisitive, reasonable and generous: The contradictory depiction of Khufu is the object of great dispute between Egyptologists and historians to this day.

They leaned on the ancient Greek traditions of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, who described an exaggerated negative character image of Khufu, ignoring the paradoxical because positive traditions the Egyptians themselves had always taught.

The ancient Egyptians were of the opinion that human life should not be misused for dark magic or similar evil things. Verena Lepper and Miriam Lichtheim suspect that a difficult-to-assess depiction of Khufu was exactly what the author had planned.

He wanted to create a mysterious character. During the New Kingdom the necropolis of Khufu and the local mortuary cults were reorganized and Giza became an important economic and cultic destination again.

His son and throne follower Thutmose IV freed the Sphinx from sand and placed a memorial stele — known as the " Dream Stele " — between its front paws.

During the Twenty-first Dynasty the temple got extended, and, during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty , the extensions continued.

From this period of time several "priests of Isis" Hem-netjer-Iset , who were also "priests of Khufu" Hem-netjer-Khufu , worked there.

During the Late Period huge numbers of scarabs with the name of Khufu were sold to the citizens, possibly as some kind of lucky charms.

More than 30 scarabs are preserved. From the same period comes the famous Inventory Stela , which names Khufu and his wife Henutsen. However, modern Egyptologists question whether Khufu was still personally adored as a royal ancestor at this time; they think it more likely that Khufu was already seen as a mere symbolic foundation figure for the history of the Isis temple.

Manetho also says that Khufu received a contempt against the gods and that he had written a sacred book about that and that he Manetho received that book during his travel through Egypt.

The story about the alleged "Sacred Book" is questioned by modern Egyptologists, for it would be highly unusual that a pharaoh wrote books and that such a precious document could be sold away so easily.

The Greek historian Herodotus instead depicts Khufu as a heretic and cruel tyrant. In his literary work Historiae , Book II, chapter —, he writes: He closed all the temples; after this he kept the priests from sacrificing there and then he forced all the Egyptians to work for him.

So some were ordered to draw stones from the stone quarries in the Arabian mountains to the Nile, and others he forced to receive the stones after they had been carried over the river in boats, and to draw them to those called the Libyan mountains.

Of this oppression there passed ten years while the causeway was made by which they drew the stones, which causeway they built, and it is a work not much less, as it appears to me, than the pyramid.

When they had first made it thus, they raised the remaining stones with devices made of short pieces of timber , lifting them first from the ground to the first stage of the steps, and when the stone got up to this it was placed upon another machine standing on the first stage, and so from this it was drawn to the second upon another machine; for as many as were the courses of the steps, so many machines there were also, or perhaps they transferred one and the same machine, made so as easily to be carried, to each stage successively, in order that they might take up the stones; for let it be told in both ways, according as it is reported.

However, that may be, the highest parts of it were finished first, and afterwards they proceeded to finish that which came next to them, and lastly they finished the parts of it near the ground and the lowest ranges.

On the pyramid it is declared in Egyptian writing how much was spent on radishes and onions and leeks for the workmen, and if I remember correctly what the interpreter said while reading this inscription for me, a sum of silver talents was spent.

Kheops moreover came to such a pitch of evilness, that being in want of money he sent his own daughter to a brothel and ordered her to obtain from those who came a certain amount of money how much it was they did not tell me.

But she not only obtained the sum that was appointed by her father, but she also formed a design for herself privately to leave behind her a memorial: She requested each man who came in to her to give her one stone for her building project.

The same goes for the story about king Khafre. He is depicted as the direct follower of Khufu and as likewise evil and that he ruled for 56 years.

In chapter — Herodotus writes: This king followed the same manner as the other Herodotus closes the story of the evil kings in chapter with the words: The ancient historian Diodorus claims that Khufu was so much abhorred by his own people in later times that the mortuary priests secretly brought the royal sarcophagus, together with the corpse of Khufu, to another, hidden grave.

However, at the same time, Diodorus distances himself from Herodotus and argues that Herodotus "only tells fairy tales and entertaining fiction".

Diodorus claims that the Egyptians of his lifetime were unable to tell him with certainty who actually built the pyramids. Diodorus states that the Khufu pyramid was beautifully covered in white, but the top was said to be capped.

The pyramid therefore already had no pyramidion anymore. He also thinks that the pyramid was built with ramps, which were removed during the finishing of the lime stone shell.

Diodorus estimates that the total number of workers was , and that the building works lasted for 20 years. Upon arriving at the Giza pyramids, they searched for explanations as to who could have built these monuments.

By this time, no inhabitant of Egypt was able to tell and no one could translate the Egyptian hieroglyphs anymore. As a consequence, the Arab historians wrote down their own theories and stories.

The best known story about Khufu and his pyramid can be found in the book Hitat completely: This book contains several collected theories and myths about Khufu, especially about the Great Pyramid.

Though King Khufu himself is seldom mentioned, many Arab writers were convinced that the Great Pyramid and the others, too were built by the god Hermes named Idris by the Arabs.

Then he writes that Khufu built the pyramids after repeated nightmares in which the earth turned upside-down, the stars fell down and people were screaming in terror.

Another nightmare showed the stars falling down from heaven and kidnapping humans, then putting them beneath two large mountains. King Khufu then received a warning from his prophets about a devastating deluge that would come and destroy Egypt.

To protect his treasures and books of wisdom, Khufu built the three pyramids of Giza. Lloyd , for example, points to documents and inscriptions from the 6th dynasty listing an important town called Menat-Khufu , meaning "nurse of Khufu".

This town was still held in high esteem during the Middle Kingdom period. Furthermore, he points to the overwhelming number of places where mortuary cults for Khufu were practiced, even outside Giza.

These mortuary cults were still practiced even in Saitic and Persian periods. The famous Lamentation Texts from the First Intermediate Period reveal some interesting views about the monumental tombs from the past; they were at that time seen as proof of vanity.

However, they give no hint of a negative reputation of the kings themselves, and thus they do not judge Khufu in a negative way. They also call for caution against the credibility of the ancient traditions.

They argue that the classical authors lived around years after Khufu and their sources that were available in their lifetimes surely were antiquated.

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